Cow-calf operations maintain a breeding herd of cows, replacement heifers (young females) and bulls. Feeder cattle are steers or heifers mature enough to be placed in a feedlot where they will be fattened prior to slaughter. Holsteins originated in Holland more than 2,000 years ago, and were brought to America in the 1850s as demand for milk grew in this country. Chevon: The meat of goat. Calf: baby cow. The yield grade is determined by evaluating four carcass factors: There are five yield grades: USDA yield grades 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Buying-in systems are also commonly used, in which animals are bought, kept for a time during which they are usually fed to gain mass or condition, and then sold. In the beef cattle industry, PVP's are usually used to verify the age and source of cattle for export to various foreign countries. Cattle are commonly raised as livestock for meat (beef or veal, see beef cattle), for milk (see dairy cattle), and for hides, which are used to make leather.They are used as riding animals and draft animals (oxen or bullocks, which pull carts, plows and other implements). Ruminants are therefore extremely important; more than 60 percent of the world’s farmland is in meadows and pasture. Production takes place almost across South Africa, with different breeds being suited to different climatic conditions and areas. The most commonly used systems are cow-calf, backgrounding, and finish-ing operations. The Yield Grade for a carcass that weighs 760 pounds, has an Adj. On the Grid refers to selling cattle at a price that is determined after harvesting, based upon the quality of the carcass on several metrics. Cod. The role of firm size and its relationship to adoption has been of long-term interest to researchers. Crossbred. a cattle of either sex that is 1 to 2 years of age: Term. inferior genetics. Our primary objective is to list the common terms used when discussing animal feeding. We bet you never knew that these 10 products contain cow parts and by-products. CREAM. Cow-Calf Operation : Definition. Our primary objective is to list the common terms used when discussing animal feeding. The cattle is with black and patched white coat, occasionally red and white. The meat of mature or almost mature cattle is mostly known as beef. A young female that has had only one calf is occasionally called a first-calf heifer. Use of early maturing crop varieties; efficient scheduling of the sequence of land preparation, planting, and harvesting; use of seedbeds and transplanting operations for intensive land use through multiple cropping; efficient use of irrigation and commercial fertilizer; and selection of chemicals to control insects, diseases, and weeds—all of these are possible measures for increasing production and … Also, Angus cattle require little maintenance during calving season, are good mothers, and are very feed efficient. shape and body type of an animal. Crossbred: Definition. Broilers – a chicken that is six to 13 weeks of age used for meat production Pullet – Female bird under one year of age Hen – Female bird over one year of age Cockerel – Male bird under one year of age Rooster – Male bird over one year of age Popular Products – eggs and chicken. Animals and their sheds need to be cleaned at a regular interval. Buying-in systems are also commonly used, in which animals are bought, kept for a time during which they are usually fed to … Climatic and management conditions dictate different calving seasons in different regions. There are separate formulas for marbling and maturity which ultimately go into the Quality Grade. They have a duty and responsibility to safeguard the health and welfare of animals on their farm, and should manage their farm to reduce the risk of disease challenge and, therefore, the need to use antibiotics and other medicines. Agriculture: The utilization of biological processes on farms to produce food and other products useful and necessary to man. Fat Thickness of 0.50 inches fat, 2.5% KPH and 13.2 sq. UGA Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1367 • Common Terms Used in Animal Feeding and Nutrition 3 The largest operating cost in a livestock production enterprise is the feed bill. feeding practices followed. In the event of overlap in the terminology defined here and that used elsewhere, the legal definition should be used. The word flink is (supposed to be) used for twelve or more cattle in a group. Netherlands. Knowing exactly what they represent instead of guessing can be important. Both a “way of life” and a “means of life” for the people involved in Each has its advantages and disadvantages but may improve a group of animals. Additional comments are included which describe the impact these management practices may have on the production system. The classification of the breeds of cattle which are now used in beef production is: Phylum Chordata (animals with a backbone) Class Mammalia (milk producing) Order Artiodactyla (even-toed, hoofed) Suborder Ruminata (cud chewing) Family Bovidae (hollow horn) Genus Bos (ruminant quadripeds) Species taurus indicus (European domestic breeds) (humped cattle) Note: Other species of Bos have … The adjective applying to cattle in general is usually bovine. A castrated male (occasionally a female or in some areas a bull) kept for draft purposes is called an ox (plural oxen); "ox" may also be used to refer to some carcase products from any adult cattle, such as ox-hide, ox-blood or ox-liver. Feedlots/feedyards are facilities designed to meet the feed, water and care requirements of large numbers of cattle. Calf: baby cow. Conformation. Some Australian, Canadian, New Zealand and British people use the term beast, especially for single animals when the gender is unknown. Cattle fattened in feedlots are fed small amounts of hay or straw supplemented with grains, silages, or other ingredients in order to increase the energy density of the diet. Price Differential refers to the difference is price per pound of calves based upon gender or quality. common term for removal of a retained placenta . mechanical device that is used to restrain cattle. agricultural engineering cource name: animal health and production code: as 101 group 3 assignment: 1 group members names registration number names registration number baltazari, leonce r. age/j/2016/0358 joseph, richard … Piker bullocks are micky bulls that were caught, castrated and then later lost. Feedlots utilize abundant sources of feed grains and by-products to efficiently feed large numbers of cattle. Family Farm: Proprietorships, partnerships or family operations that do not have hired managers. This term is used also as a generic reference to cattle. common terms used to describe cattle 1. sokoine university of agriculture college of agriculture department of engineering sciences and technology degree prog: b.sc. In fact, cattle milk constitutes the largest share of the total world milk production. Calves are sold at weaning (typically 205 days of age) or are retained for an additional forage production season as stockers. Low-cost operations had significantly larger cowherds than high-cost operations. Beef Cattle Systems Several methods are used to organize and classify the types of beef production systems in the United States. Cattle have been farmed since stone age times across Africa and most of Eurasia. Homogenization: A process applied to milk that results in fat globules being reduced in size to allow a smooth consistency. A young female before she has had a calf of her own and is under three years of age is called a heifer. Decreasing the fiber content of forages has been found to … Cattle of certain breeds bred specifically for milk production are called milking or dairy cattle; a cow kept to provide milk for one family may be called a house cow or milker. weaned cattle that are run on grass or fed high roughage diets: Term. The production cycle of the animals start at cow-calf operations; this operation is designed specifically to breed cows … The results should … Cattle were first imported into the New World by the Spanish in 1541. 1. These cattle are typically purebred British or Continental breeds or a cross of several beef breeds, known as a composite. The role of firm size and its relationship to adoption has been of long-term interest to researchers. The most common use for beet pulp is in show cattle diets or in horse feeds. This Factsheet is designed to provide the reader with definitions of terms used in nutrition-related articles, feed analysis reports and feed tags. The lower the numerical value of the USDA yield grade, the higher the expected yield of closely trimmed, boneless retail cuts. Heifer is a young female bovine that has not borne a calf. restraint technique used in cattle in which the tailhead is grasped and raised and vertically Tankage animal residues left after fat is rendered in a slaughterhouse that is used for feed or fertilizer There are many phrases used in today’s beef industry. According to USDA, 99% of dairy farms in the U.S. are family-owned and operated. Not an offer or solicitation: This is not an offer or solicitation for investment management services, investment advisory services, securities or any other product or service. 2. Backgrounders are cattle operations that take weaned calves and feed them summer grass to add weight before being sent to a feedyard for finishing. Cream also is dried and powdered, and some is condensed by evaporation and canned. 3. UGA Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1367 • Common Terms Used in Animal Feeding and Nutrition 3 The largest operating cost in a livestock production enterprise is the feed bill. The breed Red and White Holstein cattle originated in the US, and Canada is a dual purpose breed used for both milk and meat production. Also Read: Fish production To keep this cost low, one must sup-ply the right amount of feed to the animals. Cattle. This term is used also as a generic reference to cattle. In 2001, a USDA report found economies of scale were related to low-cost vs. high- cost beef cattle producers (Short 2001). The purpose of this publication is to serve as an educational reference and resource to those who are interested in animal feeding and nutrition. To keep this cost low, one must sup-ply the right amount of feed to the animals. Introduction Over the last decades an enormous amount of research has been done into the ways in which livestock use feed to maintain life, to grow, to reproduce and to produce all of the animal products which man uses, especially milk. inferior genetics. This Factsheet is designed to provide the reader with definitions of terms used in nutrition-related articles, feed analysis reports and feed tags. Holsteins are best known as dairy cows, but those animals not used for breeding stock or milk production are raised for their value as beef cattle. Cuts of beef refer to the portions of a bovine animal. However, beef production does impact upon plants, soil, air and water, and depletes resources such as fuel. Other terms 1. This is perhaps the most important metric in the economics of animal protein production. Breeds of cattle suited to various climatic zones and modes of production have developed through human intervention and natural selection. A springer is a cow or heifer close to calving. Poultry also convert A yield grade 1 carcass provides the greatest amount of saleable beef while a yield grade 5 is the lowest-yielding carcass. I. An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a maverick in the USA and Canada. refers to a general family grouping of cattle. The Black Angus cattle breed came to … This can also refer to the calves coming from these operators, particularly stockers. The terms "bull", "cow" and "calf" are also used by extension to denote the gender or age of other large animals, including whales, hippopotamuses, camels, elk and elephants, Peel: High grain price impacts on the cattle industry, Aporreadillo Con Salsa Verde (Shredded Steak & Eggs with Green Salsa), The Gun Barrel Steak & Game House: Jackson Hole, Wyoming, Beef Balance Sheet (This Year vs. Next Year). Poultry also convert Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). At this point, they are considered Feeder Cattle and are taken to feedlots to continue the fattening process. In experimental trials, using typical commercial stocking rates, yield reductions of at least 20% have resulted. All cattle farmers must be totally committed to producing safe food. Common types. The most commonly used systems are cow-calf, backgrounding, and finish-ing operations. Generally, cattle are purchased following weaning in the fall and are wintered on low quality feed until new grass can support the animals’ nutritional requirements. Hoof Trimmer: A trained professional who specializes in the trimming of a cow’s hooves on a regular Black Angus is the most common breed of beef cattle in the U.S., with more than 330,000 animals registered. Quality grades in decreasing order are: Yardage is the cost of housing one head of cattle, commonly quoted per day or month. Marketing terms like grass-fed, corn-fed, natural and organic are just a few of these terms. Landless ruminant production systems are highly concentrated in only a few regions of the world. Think of it as your hotel room cost. In the case of cattle, they are almost exclusively found in eastern Europe and the CIS and in a few OECD member … Generally, cattle are purchased following weaning in the fall and are wintered on low quality feed until new grass can support the animals’ nutritional requirements. In all cattle species, a female that is the twin of a bull usually becomes an infertile partial intersex, and is a freemartin. Cattle raised for human consumption are called beef cattle. Feed requirements also increase for cold weather and especially for cold rains. In South Africa the most common beef production systems are weaner-, long yearling (tolly)- and two-year old (ox) systems. Landless ruminant production system (LLR). Prolificacy: This is an ability to produce large number of off springs. Term. Cattle production systems have diets that are composed of forage (including grass and legumes), silage, supplements, or complete diets that provide their nutritional requirements. Each has its advantages and disadvantages but may improve a group of animals. 4. Please read our Disclaimer for more information. Bull is a male bovine used as a sire in cattle breeding, Calf is the offspring of a bovine animal (domestic cattle) in its first year. Usually cattlemen plan for their herds to calve (have their young) in the early spring. Pregnant cows in the last third of pregnancy require more nutrients than dry cows. Agriculture: The utilization of biological processes on farms to produce food and other products useful and necessary to man. There are an estimated 1.6 billion domesticated cattle in the world. Common Terms Used in ANIMAL FEEDING AND NUTRITION . Definition. Neat (horned oxen, from which neatsfoot oil is derived), beef (young ox) and beefing (young animal fit for slaughtering) are obsolete terms, although poll, pollard or polled cattle are still terms in use for naturally hornless animals, or in some areas also for those that have been disbudded. “Live” in marketing refers to selling cattle by weight, not carcass quality. One reason the breed is so popular is their carcass characteristics, which are marketed as yielding well-marbled, flavorful beef. Yield Grade Formula  = 2.5+(2.50*Adj. A USDA approved Process Verified Program requires a company or business entity to implement a Quality Management System, based upon ISO 9000 standards, and to provide products or services which consistently meet specified product requirements. Calves will need a higher level of nutrition to allow for their growth, while mature dry cows will need a relatively low level of nutrition. Breed - A group of animals that have similar external characteristics which are … Typically a producer uses either the straightbreeding or crossbreeding system. It can be used as a source of supplemental energy in beef cow diets or as a fiber source in backgrounding and finishing rations. The shed should be well-ventilated and roofed so that animals are protected from rain, heat, and cold. Agribusiness: a way of farming that combines agriculture and business and usually involves large amounts of land, animals, and expensive technology be Artifact: a historical object made by humans Bacteria: microorganisms that live in the soil and convert nutrients into forms usable by plants Bovine: cattle Breed: to produce offspring by giving birth or by hatching Ruminant (cud-chewing) animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats convert large quantities of pasture forage, harvested roughage, or by-product feeds, as well as nonprotein nitrogen such as urea, into meat, milk, and wool. Quality Grade refers to the USDA grading system using marbling and maturity as its axes1. Yearling: Definition. Yield grades are expressed in numbers that estimate the percentage of expected cutability from a carcass. Cleaning a cow. This carcass would be marketed as a YG2 because the decimals are dropped and not rounded. Improper or late castration on a bull results in it becoming a coarse steer known as a stag in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. Colostrum. Acre: A parcel of land, containing 4,840 square yards or 43,560 square feet. A mature female of cattle that has delivered a calf, usually around 2 years of age. In cattle farming, animals are maintained in a strictly hygienic manner with proper housing. Stocker cattle are normally marketed or transported to feedlots at the end of the grazing season when nutritional quality of the forage begins to decline. The following list of terms is provided for information purposes only. The only modern usage we can find is by crossword compilers stuck for a word. 1. Feed Conversion/Feed Efficiency refers to the pounds of feed needed to add a pound of gain on an animal. In beef production there are three main stages: cow-calf operations, backgrounding, and feedlot operations. Steer calves and most heifer calves are sold, but some may be selected to enter the breeding herd. Preconditioning refers to the process of having calves receive vaccinations and being introduced to processed feeds after weaning, Premium is the price increase per pound paid by a packer for cattle carcasses that achieve certain hurdles. In South Africa the most common beef production systems are weaner-, long yearling (tolly)- and two-year old (ox) systems. It is an estimate of the relative amount of lean, edible meat from a carcass. This listing will also be helpful when reading articles on animal feeding and nutrition, feed analysis reports or tags associated with feeds sold in the market. Definition. This listing will also be helpful when reading articles on animal feeding and nutrition, feed analysis reports or tags associated with feeds sold in the market. A proper drainage system should be there to remove animal waste. Bovine. The terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United Kingdom and other British influenced parts of world such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and the United States. Raising CattleThe Stages of Beef ProductionBeef production represents the largest single segment of American agriculture. Pork: The meat of pig/swine. Beef cattle will have varying requirements depending on their age and stage of production. In fact, USDA says more farms are classified as beef cattle operations (35%) than any other type.Raising cattle involves numerous farms and operations, each serving a unique role in the process. Fat Thickness, inches)+(0.20*%Kidney, Pelvic and Heart)+(0.0038*Hot Carcass Wt., pounds)-(0.32*Ribeye Area, square inches). Cattle farming involves keeping bulls and cows for meat (beef) or milk (dairy) purposes. A wild, young, unmarked bull is known as a micky in Australia. inches of REA  = YG = 2.5 + (2.50*.45) + (0.20*2.5) + (0.0038*700) – (0.32*13.2) = 2.914. This term indicates the male cattle that are castrated when he is still a calf. Beet pulp is a good source of highly digestible fiber. Beef fed solely roughage feeds take longer to reach market weight and condition, and land resources in the U.S. are insufficient for a forage-based beef supply at the current level of consumer demand. Responsible Use of Antimicrobials in Cattle Production. ... A term used to refer to larger-scale farms. Although any mammal can produce milk, commercial dairy farms are typically one-species enterprises. This can be further refined by using the inbreeding, linebreeding, closebreeding, outcrossing, and grading-up subcategories. That is why they are called herbivores and they are also known as ruminants (because they have one stomach with four compartments). In developed countries, dairy farms typically consist of high producing dairy cows.Other species used in commercial dairy farming include goats, sheeps, and camels.In Italy, donkey dairies are growing in popularity to produce an alternative milk source for human infants. Store cattle are growing animals that are usually up to 2 years old that are bought and then finished. The high-fat portion of milk that is separated during processing. Live Cattle refers to cattle industrially-raised for beef production from the calf stage until they reach between 600 to 800 pounds. A compilation of cattle terms and definitions from words commonly used to describe cattle. Beef cows kept for the production of feeder calves are usually maintained on pasture and roughages with required amounts of protein supplement and some grain being fed only to first-calf heifers or very heavy milking cows. Ram In North America, draft cattle under four years old are called working steers. COW-CALF OPERATIONS Mainly family owned and operated, cow-calf operations involve keeping mature cattle In Australia, the term "Japanese ox" is used for grain fed steers in the weight range of 500 to 650 kg that are destined for the Japanese meat trade. They have a duty and responsibility to safeguard the health and welfare of animals on their farm, and should manage their farm to reduce the risk of disease challenge and, therefore, the need to use antibiotics and other medicines. CROSSBREED: The word flink is (supposed to be) used for twelve or more cattle in a group. USDA Beef Quality and Yield Grades USDA Beef Quality and Yield Grades, If you are new to investing in feeder cattle, start here, If you are a cow-calf operator or backgrounder, we would like to know you, If you produce grain, silage, or other feed, we’d like to hear from you. a management unit that maintains a breeding herd of cows and produces weaned calves for sale: Term. Boxed beef. Overfeeding is wasteful. The techniques were evaluated in terms of net economic benefit (revenue generated by a practice less the cost of implementation). remnants of steer scrotum. COW-CALF OPERATIONS Mainly family owned and operated, cow-calf operations involve keeping mature cattle Though the list of breeds is quite long, some of the more recognized beef cattle breeds are Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Brangus, Maine-Anjou, Simmental and Limousin. These higher energy feed sources greatly reduce the time required to reach market weights. By feeding cattle in feedlots, finished cattle weighing 1,200 to 1,500 pounds can be marketed at 16 to 22 months of age. Because beef farming can be a low input system in terms of costs, labour and time, it is a very useful enterprise to run as a secondary enterprise. The purpose of this publication is to serve as an educational reference and resource to those who are interested in animal feeding and nutrition. Responsible Use of Antimicrobials in Cattle Production. *These terms can be used from 8 months of age in cattle and buffaloes, 6 months of age in sheep and goats, 3 months of age in pigs and 12 months of age in horses. Within the beef cattle industry in parts of the United States, the older term beef (plural beeves) is still used to refer to an animal of either gender.